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director, tour: a person, usually employed or subcontracted by the tour operator, who accompanies a tour from departure to return, acting as a guide and troubleshooter and performing all functions to make the tour operate. Also see tour manager or escort.
Discretionary income: Money received from employment or other sources which can be freely spent on leisure pursuits (such as travel and tourism) after general living costs, taxation etc. are taken into consideration.
Discrimination: Unequal treatment of persons on grounds which are not justifiable in law, e.g. in the UK, discrimination on the grounds of sex or race.
Distribution: The process employed to provide customers access to the product. For travel products distribution focuses largely on the ways in which the customer can reserve or purchase the product.
Disturbance: Accelerated change caused by human activity or extreme natural events.
Diversification: The process of developing new products for new markets, in order to achieve business growth.
diversity: variety; multiplicity; range; assortment
domestic escorted tour: a packaged, pre-planned itinerary, including the services of a tour manager (escort) within a traveler s own country
domestic independent tour: DIT: a custom-made tour of a part of the USA planned exclusively for a client by a travel agent
Domestic supply of tourism commodities: Domestic supply of tourism commodities is defined as the total production in Canada of the tourism commodities which are mainly produced by tourism industries. Not all of domestic supply is purchased by visitors, so that supply exceeds tourism demand for the national tourism indicators (NTI). For example, visitors purchase only a small proportion of food and beverage services, with most going to local consumption. Also, supply does not include imports. For example the sale of a ticket on a non-Canadian airline is excluded from supply.
Domestic tourism: Travel within the country of residence.
Dominant scenic alteration: An alteration in the scenic landscape that is visually obtrusive.
double-occupancy rate: the price per person for a room to be shared with another person; abbreviated ppdo and most often quoted in the industry
double-room rate: the full price of a room for two people (twice the double-occupancy rate)
downgrade: to move to a lesser level of accommodations or a lower class of service
Due diligence: Taking what is considered in law to be reasonable care.
Dwell time: Length of time a visitor spends at an attraction or destination. Dwell time is often taken into consideration when setting admission fees as a way of ensuring perceived value for money
Earth Check™ indicators: Proprietary system belonging to Green Globe 21, which uses carefully selected indicators to measure and benchmark key environmental and social impacts, as well as operational efficiency.
Ecologically sustainable: Using, conserving and enhancing the community’s resources so that ecological development is maintained, and the total quality of life can be sustained now and in the future.
eCommerce: Internet facilitated commerce, using electronic means for promoting, selling, distributing, and servicing products.
economy fares or services: in U.S. domestic airline operations, passenger carriage at a level below coach service; in international operations, carriage at a level below first class
ecosystem: an area where living and non-living things interact
Ecosystem: A dynamic system of plant, animal, fungal and micro-organism communities, and the associated non-living physical and chemical factors.
ecotour: a tour designed to focus on preserving the environment of environmentally sensitive areas
eco-tourism: a combination of tourism and the environment (e.g. planning before development; sustainability of resources; economic viability of a tourism product; no negative impact on either the environment or local communities; responsibility for the environment from developers, the tourism industry and tourists; environmentally-friendly practices by all parties concerned and economic benefits flowing to local communities)
Ecotourism: Defined by The International Ecotourism Society as ‘responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people’.
Ecotourism: Ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that foster environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation.
educational tour: tour designed around an educational activity, such as studying art
endangered species: in severe danger of becoming extinct in the near future unless immediate steps are taken to protect the species
Energy conservation: Positive initiatives to reduce the consumption of energy to the minimum level required.
environment: the diverse community activities and cultures of a country's inhabitants, as well as its scarce and sensitive natural resources
Environmental auditing: Inspection of a tourism organisation to assess the environmental impact of its activities.
Environmental education: Formal and informal learning processes that are designed to raise awareness and teach new values, knowledge and skills, in order to encourage more sustainable behaviour.
Environmental impact assessment: A study undertaken to assess the effect of an action upon a specific environment or the social or cultural integrity of a community.
Environmental impact statement: The report resulting from an environmental impact assessment.
Environmental impact: The effects that a community has on the environment as a consequence of its activities.
Environmental management systems: Systems established by tourism organisations with the aim of mitigating negative environmental impacts.
Environmental scanning: The process of collecting information to carry out a systematic analysis of the forces effecting the organisation and identifying potential threats and opportunities with view to generating future strategies.
errors and omissions insurance: insurance coverage equivalent to malpractice insurance, protecting an agent s or operator s staff if an act of negligence, an error, or an omission occurs which causes a client great hardship or expense.
escort: (1) a person, usually employed or subcontracted by the tour operator who accompanies a tour from departure to return, acting as a troubleshooter. This term is often incorrectly interchanged with courier, conductor, host, manager, director, or leader, since each term designates different duties although they do perform the escort function.
escorted tour: (1) a pre-arranged travel program, usually for a group, escorted by a tour manager or leader. In a fully conducted tour, the escort will also provide guide service throughout.
escrow accounts: funds placed in the custody of licensed financial institutions for safekeeping. Many contracts in travel require that agents and tour operators maintain customers deposits and prepayments in escrow accounts until the time of service.
ethnic tour: tour designed for people usually of the same heritage traveling to their native origin, or to a destination with ethnic relevance
European plan: a type of rate that consists of the price of the room only, no included meals
Evolutionary theories: Theories of tourism which see destinations evolving, in the sense that the types of tourists change, or evolve, over time.
excursion: journey where the traveler returns to the original point of departure
executive coach: a luxury motorcoach with seating of 25 or fewer with upscale amenities
Exotic plants: Plants whose genetic stock comes from beyond the area in which they are found.
extensions : an arranged sub-tour offered optionally before or after a tour or cruise at an extra charge
Externalities: Those costs or benefits arising from production or consumption of goods and services which are not reflected in market prices.
FAM tour: an abbreviation for familiarization tour which is often a complimentary or reduced-rate travel program for travel agents, tour operators, travel writers or others to acquaint them with a specific destination or attraction, thereby helping to stimulate sales
fauna: all the animals of a particular area
fixed expense: an expense related to the tour as a whole, which does not vary with the number of passengers such as a meal or a per person entrance to an attraction
flag carrier: a transportation carrier designated by a country to serve international routes
flora: all the plants of a particular area
folio: an itemized record of a guest’s charges and credits, maintained in the front office till departure, and can be referred to as guest bill or guest statement
food cover: a unit of food service provided to a customer. The term is not synonymous with meal because a food cover may comprise only a cup of coffee or bowl of soup
Force majeure: This is an unforeseeable or uncontrollable situation or train of events that would excuse a breach of contract.
foreign flag: any carrier not registered in the USA (applies to air and sea transportation)
franchise: the right to market a product or service, often exclusively for a specified area by a manufacturer, developer, or distributor in return for a fee
Frequent Independent Traveler: FIT: custom designed, pre-paid tour with many individualized arrangements. Also used as foreign independent traveler
front office: office situated in the lobby of a hotel, the main functions of which are (1) control/sale of guest rooms, (2) providing keys, mail, and information, (3) keeping guest accounts, rendering bills/payments, and (4) providing information to other departments
full house: a hotel with all guest rooms occupied
full-service restaurant: a food-service establishment with several menu selections and table service
function room: room used for functions, also called banquet room
function: a pre-arranged, catered group activity, usually held in private room/area
gateway: the point of access to a country or region, usually an airport or seaport, although certain frontier points and railway stations can be given the designation
gateway city: city with an international airport
gateway: city, airport, or area from which a flight or tour departs
Globalisation: Generally defined as the network of connections of organisations and peoples are across national, geographic and cultural borders and boundaries. These global networks are creating a shrinking world where local differences and national boundaries are being subsumed into global identities. Within the field of tourism, globalisation is also viewed in terms of the revolutions in telecommunications, finance and transport that are key factors currently influencing the nature and pace of growth of tourism in developing nations.
Green Globe/Green Globe 21: GREEN GLOBE 21 is the worldwide benchmarking and certification programme which facilitates sustainable travel and tourism for consumers, companies and communities. It is based on Agenda 21 and principles for Sustainable Development endorsed by 182 governments at the United Nations Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992. www.greenglobe21.com
Greenhouse effect: The trapping of the sun’s thermal radiation by gases and water vapour, keeping the surface of the earth warmer than it would be otherwise.
Greenhouse gases: Gases that contribute to the greenhouse affect. These include carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour. One source of greenhouse gases is the burning of fossil fuels, such as oil, gas and coal.
ground operator: a company or individual providing such services as hotel, sightseeing, transfers, and all other related services for groups. See receptive operator.
ground package: often expressed as a percentage (eg. 100% or 110%) of the lowest regular fare for the air travel scheduled.
group leader: an individual, acting as liaison to a tour operator, acts as escort
group tour: a pre-arranged, pre-paid travel program for a group usually including all components. Also see packaged tour.
guaranteed tour: a tour guaranteed to operate
guest account: an itemized record of a guest’s charges and credits
guide: (1) a person qualified to conduct tours of specific localities or attractions (many reliable guides are licensed), (2) an airline, bus, railroad, or ship manual of schedules and fares, usually printed seasonally
guided tour: a local sightseeing trip conducted by a guide
head tax: fee charged for arriving and departing passengers in some foreign countries
heritage: a very broad expression that describes anything that has a link with some past event or person (e.g. cultural heritage refers to past customs and traditions with the unspoken implication that these are worthwhile or creditable)
heritage site: a place that capitalises on its connection with heritage
Heritage: Things of value that are inherited which people want to keep. Heritage can be natural, cultural, tangible, intangible, personal or collective. Natural heritage is often conserved in places such as reserves and national parks. Cultural heritage practices are often conserved through ongoing traditions and practices.
Heritage: Today's perception of a pattern of events in the past.
High conservation value: Recognition of the great significance of a natural or cultural site.
high season: the period of the year when occupancy/usage of a hotel or attraction is normally the highest. High usage invariably means higher prices for rooms or admission. Also referred to as on-season or peak season.
History: A pattern of events in the past.
host: (1) a representative of the group (organizer) that may arrange optional excursions and answer questions but does not have escort authority (2) liaison to the tour operator or tour manager, or (3) a representative who provides only information or greeting services or who assists at the destination with ground arrangements without actually accompanying the tour.
HRM: Human Resource Management, concerned with the strategic management of human resources to achieve a competitive advantage.
hub and spoke tours: tours which utilize a central destination with side trips of varying length to nearby destinations
human-made attraction: an attraction created by people
immigration: the process by which a government official verifies a person’s passport, visa or origin of citizenship
Impacts: Effects, which may be either positive or negative, felt as a result of tourism-associated activity. Tourists have at least three kinds of impacts on a destination: economic, sociocultural and environmental. Tourism also has effects on tourists, in terms of possible attitude and behaviour changes.
Impromptu Travel: No arrangements booked in country of destination prior to travel. (Another name for FIT travel).
inbound tour operator: company specializing in domestic tours for foreign visitors in the strictest sense. Can also be used interchangeably with receptive operator.
inbound tour: group of travelers whose trip originated in another city or country
incentive or incentive commission: See override.
incentive tour: (1) a trip offered as a prize, particularly to stimulate the productivity of employees or sales agents, or (2) the business of operating such travel programs
incidentals: charges incurred by participants of a tour, but are not included in the tour price
inclusive tour: tour in which all specific elements – transportation, airfare, hotels, transfers, and other costs – are offered for a flat rate. An inclusive tour does not necessarily cover all costs such as personal items and telephone.
independent contractor: a person contractually retained by another to perform certain specific tasks The other person has no control over the independent contractor other than as provided in the contract. In the context of group travel, a tour manager is often retained by the tour operator, or tour brochure designer/writer might be hired in this capacity.
independent tour: an unescorted tour sold through agents to individuals. For one price, the client guaranteed air travel, hotel room, attraction admissions and (typically) a car rental.
Indigenous people: Indigenous peoples are those who are descendants of the ...
Indigenous species: A species that occurs at a place within its historically known natural range, and forms part of the natural biological diversity of a place.
indirect air carrier: generally synonymous with charter tour operator. A tour operator, travel agent, or other promoter who (under federal regulations) contracts for charter space from a carrier for resale to the public. In theory, indirect air carriers act as independent, risk-taking entrepreneurs, promoting their own product
info-mediaries: Organisations which provide websites/electronic guides as an information resource, sharing other resources such as web links to organisations that sell tourism/travel. The infomediary may be an organisation or company in its own right, or may form part of an individual company's or organisation's customer service
Information systems: Systems that use information technology to capture, transmit, store, retrieve, manipulate, or display information.
Infrastructure: Construction needed to support economic development.
Innovative best practice: A practice that is considered to be of the highest quality, excellence, or standing – a leader in the field.
Intangibility: The characteristic of not being touchable: a good is tangible whereas a service is intangible
Intermediary: An organisation within the chain of distribution whose function is to facilitate the supply of a given product from producers to consumers. In the travel industry examples are travel agencies and tourism information offices.
intermediate carrier: a carrier that transports a passenger or piece of baggage as part of an inter-line movement, but on which neither the point of origin or destination is located
intermodal tour: tour using several forms of transportation such as airplanes, motorcoaches, cruise ships, and trains to create a diversified and efficient tour package
Interpretation: An educational process that is intended to stimulate and facilitate people's understanding of place, so that empathy towards, conservation, heritage, culture and landscape is developed.
Interpretation: Revealing the significance and meanings of natural and cultural phenomena to visitors, usually with the intent of providing a satisfying learning experience and encouraging more sustainable behaviour.
Introduced species: A translocated or alien species found at a place outside its historically known natural range, as a result of the intentional or accidental dispersal by human activities. Includes genetically modified organisms.
IT Number: a registration number that is assigned to a tour package
itinerary: the travel schedule provided by a travel agent or tour operator for the client. A proposed or preliminary itinerary may be rather vague or very specific. A final itinerary spells out all details, including flight numbers, departure times, and similar data, as well as describing planned activities.
land operator: a company that provides local services, see also ground/receptive operator
lead time: advance time between initiating a tour and its departure date
Leadership: Influencing and directing the performance of group members towards the achievement of organisational goals
leg: portion on a journey between two scheduled stops
Leisure travel: Travel undertaken for pleasure and unrelated to paid work time.
Length of stay: No of nights spent in one destination. Most tourist boards seek to find ways of increasing visitors’ length of stay
letter of agreement: a letter from the buyer to the supplier accepting the terms of the proposal. This may also be the supplier s initial proposal that has been initialed by the buyer
Lifecycle: The particular pattern through which a destination evolves.
Limits of acceptable change: Environmental indicators that can monitor changes over time as a consequence of tourism.
load factor: average number of seats occupied, e.g. motorcoach or air
local: belonging to a particular place or region
low season: that time of the year at any given destination when tourist traffic, and often rates, are at their lowest. Also referred to as off-peak or off-season.
macro business: a large, formal business that employs many people
manifest: final official listing of all passengers and/or cargo aboard a transportation vehicle or vessel
Market orientated pricing: A method of pricing that benchmarks prices against competitors when deciding on price.
market segment: the concept of dividing a market in parts
Market segmentation: Market segmentation is a marketing approach that encompasses the identification of different groups of customers with different needs or responses to marketing activity. The market segmentation process also considers which of these segments to target.
markup: (1) difference between the cost and the selling price of a given product; (2) difference between the net rate charged by a tour operator, hotel, or other supplier and the retail selling price of the service.
Mass tourism: Traditional, large scale tourism commonly, but loosely used to refer to popular forms of leisure tourism pioneered in southern Europe, the Caribbean, and North America in the 1960s and 1970s.
master account: the guest account for a particular group or function that will be paid by the sponsoring organization
master bill: all items contracted by the operator and supplier that will be paid by the operator
MAVERICS: Characterisation of tourists of the future as multi-holidaying, autonomous, variegated, energised, restless, irresponsible, constrained and segmented.
Mediation: An attempt to settle a dispute using a neutral third party
meet and greet: pre-purchased service for meeting and greeting a client/group upon arrival in a city, usually at the airport, pier, or rail station. Service may include assisting the client/group with entrance formalities, collecting baggage, and obtaining transportation to the hotel
micro business: a small, often informal, business that employs very few people
Minimal impact practices: Deliberate human behaviour that reduces the negative impact of people or objects on the environment to a minimum.
minimum charge: the amount that each customer must pay no matter what is consumed. For example: a two-drink minimum in a club
minimum land package: the minimum tour expressed in terms of cost and ingredients that must be purchased to qualify for an airline inclusive tour, or contract bulk inclusive tour fare. Such packages usually include a certain number of nights lodging, other specified ingredients such as sightseeing tours and/or entertainment and/or car rental. The minimum rate for the combined air fares and
Mode of travel: The type of transport used to make a journey between an origin and a destination, and can include walking and cycling as well as all forms of mechanical transport.
Monitoring: The ongoing review and assessment of the natural or cultural integrity of a place in order to detect changes in its condition with reference to a baseline condition.
Motivation: Internal and external forces and influences that drive an individual to achieving certain goals.
motorcoach tour operator: a company that creates tours in which group members are transported via motorcoach on a planned itinerary of stops
motorcoach: a large, comfortable, well-powered bus that can transport groups and their luggage over long distances
mystery tour: a tour to an unpublished destination -- passengers get a surprise!
nationwide tour: sold to people throughout the nation
Natural area: Areas that exist in or are formed by nature which are not artificial, and can include cultural aspects.
natural attraction: a tourist attraction that has not been made or created by people
natural disaster: a destructive force (e.g. earthquake, flood, volcanic eruption)
Nature Tourism (Nature-based tourism): Ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas.
Negligence: Failing to exercise what is legally considered to be reasonable care.