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Printed Circuit Boards
The global demand for printed circuit boards is expected to reach an estimated $72.6 billion by 2022. The Asia-Pacific (APAC) region held the largest market share of the global PCB market in 2017, with almost 80% market share and is expected to remain the largest and fastest growing region due to the increasing production of electronic components and devices within the region.
Potential areas for investment
Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing
Printed Circuit Board Assembling
Component Manufacturing for Printed Circuit Board (Conductors, Resisters and many more)
1) Active Electronic Components
There are two classes of electronic components – active and passive. Active electronic components can control the flow of electricity. Most electronic printed circuit boards have at least one active component. Transistors, vacuum tubes, silicon-controlled rectifiers are all examples of active electronic components.
2) Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive [Acronym: ACA]
Anisotropic conductive adhesives are conductive in the Z-axis and are non-conductive in the X- and Y-axis.
3) Anisotropic Conductive Film [Acronym: ACF]
Anisotropic Conductive Film is an environmentally friendly and lead-free adhesive interconnect system that is commonly used in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing to make the electrical and mechanical connections from the driver electronics to the glass substrates of the LCD.
4) Automated Optical Inspection [Acronym: AOI]
Automated optical inspection is a key technique used when manufacturing and testing printed circuit boards. A camera autonomously scans printed circuit boards under test for both catastrophic failure and quality defects. AOI enables fast and accurate inspection of electronics assemblies, particularly printed circuit board assemblies, to ensure that the quality of product leaving the production line is high and the items are built correctly, without manufacturing faults.
5) Application Specific Integrated Circuit [Acronym: ASIC]
Application Specific Integrated Circuit is a chip that’s custom designed for a specific application rather than a general-purpose chip. ASICs are used in a wide-range of applications, including auto emission control, environmental monitoring, and personal digital assistants. ASICs are custom designed—often to be smaller, faster or more efficient. They are more expensive to design and manufacture, compared to standard logic integrated circuits.
6) Automated Test Equipment [Acronym: ATE]
Automatic test equipment is computer-controlled equipment that tests the performance and functionality of electronic devices. ATEs use control systems and automated information technology to rapidly perform tests that measure and evaluate devices under test. This form of testing is often used in electronic component manufacturing, and specifically for specialized semiconductors.
7) Ball Grid Array [Acronym: BGA]
Ball grid array is a type of surface mount technology used for packaging integrated circuits. They are made up of many overlapping layers that can contain one to a million multiplexers, logic gates, flip-flops and other circuits. BGA components are packaged electronically into standardized packages that include a wide array of shapes and sizes. They’re well-known for minimal inductance, high lead count and remarkably effective density, and can provide more interconnection pins than dual in-line or flat packages.
8) Centroid File
A Centroid data file is a computer aided design file that contains information utilized during printed circuit board prototyping, fabrication, and assembly. It lists the reference designation, X, Y, side, top, bottom, and rotation coordinates that automated machinery uses to fabricate and place electronic components on printed circuit boards.
9) Ceramic Flat Pack [Acronym: C-Flat Pack]
Ceramic Flat Pack is a square, ceramic surface mount chip that provides leads on all four sides, affording a high lead count in a small area. It is a US military standardized Printed-circuit-board surface-mount-component package. Also commonly referred to as ceramic quad flatpack or ceramic quad flat-package.
10) Ceramic Leaded Chip Carrier [Acronym: C-LCC]
Ceramic Leaded Chip Carrier is a ceramic package that’s hermetically sealed, and has metallic contacts called castellations, which are flush with the package or recessed instead of leads consisting of metal prongs or wires. The castellations are usually on all four sides of the package.
11) Ceramic Pin Grid Array [Acronym: C-PGA]
Ceramic Pin Grid Array is a ceramic package capable of providing up to several hundred pins, all located on its underside. Its design minimizes the distance signals must travel from the chip to each designated pin. C-PGA is often used to package computer chips.
12) Computer Aided Design [Acronym: CAD]
Computer-aided design is a computer technology that designs a product and documents the design’s process. By transferring detailed diagrams of a product’s materials, processes, tolerances and dimensions with specific conventions, CAD facilitates the manufacturing process. This hardware and software system is used to produce either two-dimensional or three-dimensional diagrams, enabling engineers and architects to design everything from furniture to airplanes. Engineers can view a design from any angle, zooming in or out for close-ups and long-distance views, while the computer keeps track of design dependencies.
13) Charge Coupled Device [Acronym: CCD]
A charge-coupled device is a photosensitive semiconductor device that transports electric charge from one capacitor to another, allowing serial output of parallel data. Typically used for digital image capture, its light-sensitive integrated circuit stores and displays the data for an image in such a way that each image pixel is converted into an electrical charge with the intensity of a color in the color spectrum. Systems supporting 65,535 colors have separate values for each color that can be stored and recovered. They are the most common image capture technology employed in modern optical microscopy.
14) Contract Electronics Manufacturer [Acronym: CEM]
Contract Electronics Manufacturers are companies that make electronics products under contract for other companies. They typically take on partial or whole manufacturing responsibility for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).
15) Ceramic Multilayer Capacitor [Acronym: CMC]
Ceramic Multilayer Capacitors are monolithic devices that consist of laminated layers of specially formulated, ceramic dielectric materials interspersed with a metal electrode system. This formation is fired at high temperatures to produce sintered, volumetrically efficient capacitance devices, and a conductive termination barrier system is integrated on the exposed ends of the chip to complete the connection. Multilayer ceramic capacitors make up approximately 30% of the total components in a typical hybrid circuit module.
16) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor [Acronym: CMOS]
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor is an on-board, battery powered semiconductor chip that stores information inside computers. Its used in transistors that are manufactured into most of today’s computer microchips. The standard lifetime of a CMOS battery is around 10 Years, depending on the use and environment in which the computer resides.
17) Chip On Board [Acronym: COB]
Chip On Board is used to refer to a configuration in which a chip is mounted directly onto printed circuit boards, and techniques used for such mounting. As part of this process, a bare chip that is mounted directly onto the printed circuit board. After wires are attached, a glob of epoxy or plastic is used to cover the chip and its connections.
18) Chip On Flex [Acronym: COF]
Chip on Flex refers to the mounting of flip chip components directly to flexible circuits. Lower product weight and size, cost and reliability risk can be achieved with Chip on Flex. Product shapes that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to produce economically without the use of a flexible substrate are made possible with Chip on Flex.
19) Chip On Glass [Acronym: COG]
Chip-On-Glass is a flip chip bonding technology for direct connection assembly of bare integrated circuits on glass substrate by using Anisotropic Conductive Film. It reduces the assembly area to the highest possible packing density, and allows cost-effective mounting of driver chips. Chip On Glass is a reliable and well established technology, often used in the automobile industry.
20) Chip Scale Package [Acronym: CSP]
A chip scale package is a type of integrated circuit package. Since being introduced, they’ve become one of the biggest packaging trends in recent history. Manufacturing advantages range from package size reduction and saving printed circuit board (PCB) routing space to self alignment characteristics during PCB assembly reflow and lack of bent leads which can cause coplanarity issues. CSPs are used to increase PCB assembly yields and lower manufacturing costs.
21) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion [Acronym: CTE]
Solids undergo maximum expansion when their surface temperature is increased by heating, and contract when they are cooled. This temperature change response is referred to as the coefficient of thermal expansion. It is the rate change in the size of an object with the rate change in the temperature.
22) Direct Chip Attach [Acronym: DCA]
See ‘Chip On Board’ definition. The general term for chip on board technology is direct chip attachment (DCA). Aside from circuit boards used for chip on boards (COBs), various substrates are available for use in DCAs.
23) Dual Inline Memory Module [Acronym: DIMM]
A Dual In-Line Memory Module is a printed circuit board that contains one or several random access memory chips on a small circuit board with pins that connect it to the computer motherboard. DIMMs have a 168-pin connector and support 64-bit data transfer. Instead of installing Single In-Line Memory Modules in-line pairs for synchronous dynamic RAM chips, a single DIMM can be used.
24) Dual Inline Package [Acronym: DIP]
Dual Inline Packages are integrated circuit packages with two rows of pins. These chips are encased in hard plastic with pins running along the outside.
25) Dynamic Random Access Memory [Acronym: DRAM]
Dynamic random access memory is a type of random-access memory used primarily in PC computing devices. DRAM stores each bit of data in a separate passive electronic component inside of an integrated circuit board. DRAM has one capacitor and one transistor per bit as opposed to static random access memory, which requires 6 transistors. The capacitors and transistors used in DRAM are exceptionally small—millions of capacitors and transistors can fit onto a single memory chip.
26) Digital Signal Processor [DSP]
Digital Signal Processors mathematically manipulate real-world digitized signals like voice, audio, video, temperature, pressure, or position. DSPs are designed to perform mathematical functions very quickly, and their circuits can replace traditional analog functions, improving the accuracy and reliability of digital communications.
27) Electromagnetic Compatibility [Acronym: EMC]
Electromagnetic compatibility refers to the ability of electronic equipment and systems to operate in proximity of other electromechanical devices, without causing or suffering unacceptable output or performance degradation. Medical devices can be particularly vulnerable to electromagnetic interference if the levels of electromagnetic energy in its environment exceed the electromagnetic immunity of the device. That said, electromagnetic compatibility and interference affects all electronic devices.
28) Electromagnetic Interference [Acronym: EMI]
Electromagnetic interference is a phenomenon where an electromagnetic field interferes with another, resulting in the distortion of both fields. Many forms of naturally occurring and man-made EMI exist that can affect circuits and prevent them from working in the way that was intended. By understanding the source, coupling methods and susceptibility of the victim, EMI levels can be reduced to one where the interference doesn’t cause performance degradation.
29) Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold [ENIG]
Electroless nickel immersion gold is a surface plating used for printed circuit boards, consisting of an electroless nickel plating covered with a thin layer of immersion gold.
30) Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory [Acronym: EPROM]
Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory is a programmable read only memory whose contents can be changed.
31) Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory [Acronym: EEPROM]
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory is a programmable read-only memory that can be erased and re-used.
32) Electrostatic Discharge [Acronym: ESD]
Electrostatic discharge is a swift discharge of electric current between two objects with different charges and numbers of electrons that creates a large electromagnetic field buildup. This build up can cause catastrophic damage in electrical equipment, or nearly undetectable upset failure. ESD has several causes, but static electricity and electrostatic induction are the most common. Certain electronic devices are vulnerable to low-voltage ESD.
33) Flip Chip [Acronym: FC]
Flip Chip is a chip packaging technique in which the active area of the chip is flipped over to face downward. Instead of being faced up and bonded to the package leads with wires from the outside edges of the chip, the entire surface area of the flip chip can be used for interconnection. This is typically done through metal bumps of solder, copper or nickel/gold that are soldered onto the package substrate or the circuit board itself and underfilled with epoxy. This allows for a large number of interconnects with shorter distances than wire, greatly reducing inductance.
34) Flexible Printed Circuit [Acronym: FPC]
Flexible Printed Circuits, although similar in name to printed circuit boards, should not be designed using the same rules as for PCBs. Flexible printed circuits consist of a metallic layer of traces bonded to a dielectric layer. FPCs can be classified as single sided circuits, double sided circuits and multi-layer circuits. Their packages tend to be smaller, lighter and more functional than traditional packages that use hardboard circuits.